What are Nanobubbles?

Discover the unique scientific properties and industrial benefits of these tiny bubbles

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The Proven Benefits of Nanobubbles

Nanobubbles are 70-120 nanometers in size, 2500 times smaller than a single grain of salt. They can be formed using any gas and injected into any liquid. Due to their size, nanobubbles exhibit unique properties that improve numerous physical, chemical, and biological processes.

The Unique Characteristics of Nanobubbles

Due to their size and structure, nanobubbles possess distinct properties that make them particularly effective at improving water quality, enhancing water treatment processes, and improving productivity in industrial and agricultural applications.

Nanobubbles have a strong negative surface charge that keeps them stable in liquid and enables them to continuously participate in and stimulate physical, biological, and chemical interactions.
Nanobubbles are one of the smallest known bubble sizes, roughly 2500 times smaller than a single grain of salt, or less than 200 nanometers (nm) in diameter.
Nanobubbles are neutrally buoyant and can remain suspended in liquid (most commonly water) for weeks without rising to the surface and off-gassing.
With neutral buoyancy Moleaer’s nanobubbles ensure an enormous total bubble surface area remains in contact with the water to deliver hyper-efficient gas transfer.
Nanobubbles have a strong negative surface charge that prevents them from coalescing and enables them to physically separate small particles and droplets — like emulsified fats, oils, and grease — from water.
When nanobubbles are stimulated, they destabilize and collapse, releasing the hydroxyl radical. The hydroxyl radical (HO) is one of the strongest known oxidizers commonly used to destroy hard to treat and hard to kill contaminants in water.
Chart comparing nanobubbles to microbubbles and fine bubbles

Why are Nanobubbles So Remarkable?

Nanobubbles behave differently from larger bubbles because they’re nanoscopic. All of their beneficial attributes — stability, surface charge, neutral buoyancy, oxidation, etc. — are the result of their size. These unique features enable nanobubbles to participate in physical, biological, and chemical reactions while also providing the most efficient gas transfer. 

Nanobubbles have created a new frontier of science and engineering that is changing how entire industries utilize and treat their water. Moleaer’s technology and fundamental understanding of nanobubbles is continuously evolving with recent advancements in nanobubble production methods and ongoing discoveries around how to measure, manipulate, and apply nanobubble properties to solve customer problems.

Creating the Gold Standard for Nanobubbles

Customers around the world trust Moleaer’s technology for its efficacy, reliability, and proven results. With over 1500 nanobubble systems in use, Moleaer’s technology treats more than 560 million gallons of water daily in everything from oil fields to greenhouses to reservoirs and fish hatcheries. These industry-leading qualities come from Moleaer’s commitment to constant progress: our engineering team conducts extensive laboratory and field research to continuously identify the beneficial properties of nanobubbles and validate the value they deliver to our customers.

Woman standing in a large greenhouse looking over plants

Supporting and Supported by Research

Our efforts to advance the science of nanobubbles and push the industry are supported by an array of partners, including acclaimed universities and research institutes. This ensures our products are tested by third-party experts to validate the efficacy of nanobubbles: UCLA professor and aeration expert Michael Stenstrom reports, "Moleaer's nanobubble generators provide the highest oxygen transfer efficiency of any aeration technology I have tested." ASU confirmed the oxidative properties of Moleaer nanobubbles and the formation of hydroxyl radicals in their study. Virginia Tech proved that Moleaer’s nanobubbles eliminate pathogens like E. Coli and Listeria on surfaces within five minutes of exposure. Further, the size and concentration of Moleaer’s nanobubbles have been validated by multiple independent researchers using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) — full NanoSight report here.

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Comparing normal bubbles and nanobubbles motion

The Defining Features of Moleaer Nanobubbles

Nanobubbles are generally classified as being less than 200 nanometers (nm) in diameter. Moleaer’s patented nanobubble generation method is the only scalable method in the industry  that consistently produces high density solutions of optimally sized nanobubbles, averaging 100 nm in diameter and ranging between 70 and 120 nm. Nanobubbles of this size are stable in liquid because they have reached equilibrium with bubble surface tension, internal pressure, external pressure, surface charge, and their environment. Their stability and size give them neutral buoyancy. The net effect is that, once injected, nanobubbles are ready to react - they remain suspended in solution and disperse until they interact with surfaces or contaminants.

Details of nanobubble surfaces

The High Impact of High Reaction Potential

Their unique characteristics enable nanobubbles to participate in a wide range of reactions. This, even more than efficient gas transfer, reveals the truly revolutionary potential of nanobubbles: they can replace or significantly reduce harmful chemicals and the infrastructure traditionally required to treat water. Nanobubbles can be used to improve the efficiency of a broad spectrum of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Nanobubbles remove impurities and pathogens from wet environments, making them incredibly effective at improving production and processes across many industries and applications.


Nanobubbles can also participate in reactions due to their strong negative surface charge and other force attractions. Like a magnet, nanobubbles will be attracted to and attach to fine particulates, colloids, oil droplets, other contaminants, and surfaces — in particular, nanobubbles are attracted to target substances like organics, oils, residual hydrocarbons, surfactants, grease, and fats. When enough nanobubbles attach to a tiny particle or droplet, its density decreases, enabling it to separate from the water around it so the particle can be removed by flotation or filtration.

The Significance of Oxidation That’s Chemical-Free

In water treatment, chemical oxidation is typically achieved using ozone, UV, or harsh chemical treatments. Nanobubbles can achieve this same oxidative effect using only air and water. Their size gives them stability and a strong negative surface charge that increases the rate of interaction between nanobubbles and water impurities. When stimulated, nanobubbles destabilize, resulting in hydroxyl radical (OH) formation. Hydroxyl radicals are in a highly oxidative state so they rapidly destroy water contaminants by breaking apart their molecular structure.

Graph showing Moleaar is the most efficient oxygen transfer technology at 86%

The Power of Best-in-Class Oxygen Transfer

Moleaer nanobubbles are more efficient, last longer, and are often more cost-effective than other gas transfer solutions. They have created a revolution in the field of oxygen transfer, commonly referred to as aeration or oxygenation. Since nanobubbles are neutrally buoyant, they disperse throughout a water body, delivering oxygen to the bottom of a water column (i.e., near the bottom of a lake), as well as near the surface. Nanobubbles accumulate in water to create a reserve of entrained oxygen - up to 20% greater than the gas saturation point - so DO remains stable longer. This combination of features enables Moleaer’s nanobubbles to provide highly efficient and consistent gas transfer across a broad range of water treatment processes. Moleaer’s unmatched nanobubble production rates across a wide range of liquid flow capacities makes nanobubble treatment possible for both small and large scale processes.

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