Aeration is used in water and wastewater treatment processes to deliver oxygen to microorganisms responsible for the biological oxidation of carbonaceous material and ammonia. Aerobic processes are used to degrade biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and ammonia from water. One of the fundamental control parameters in aerobic processes is dissolved oxygen (DO). Many treatment processes lack sufficient DO due to excess loading, underperforming aeration systems or antiquated designs. Low DO levels encourage the growth of filamentous bacteria that can cause process upsets related to sludge bulking and foaming. Furthermore, low DO levels can result in poor treatment efficiency and lead to potential discharge violations. Adding additional aeration capacity can be complex and costly; however, the addition of Moleaer's nanobubbles can be used to supplement underperforming aeration systems by applying biologically available DO exactly where it is needed to support the biological process in quick, cost-effective and modular fashion.